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Article 1, Section 5, Clauses 1--4

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

1.Junius, no. 18, 29 July 1769
2.Brass Crosby's Case
3.Maryland Constitution of 1776, ART. 12
4.Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
5.Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, PT. 2, CH. 1, SEC. 3, ARTS. 10, 11
6.Articles of Confederation, art. 9, 1 Mar. 1781
7.Records of the Federal Convention
8.Cornelius, 18 Dec. 1787
9.Debate in Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 19 Jan. 1788
10.Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention, 14--15 June 1788
11.George Mason, Virginia Ratifying Convention, 14, 16 June 1788
12.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 26 July 1788
13.House of Representatives, Contested Election, 22 May 1789
14.Thomas Jefferson, Constitutionality of Residence Bill of 1790, 15 July 1790
15.James Wilson, Legislative Department, Lectures on Law, 1791
16.Senate, Contested Election of Mr. Gallatin, 20--22, 28 Feb. 1794
17.House of Representatives, Evidence in Contested Elections, 6 Dec. 1797
18.House of Representatives, Breach of Privilege, 2, 8, 12 Feb. 1798
19.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 200--205, N. §, 1803
20.William Rawle, A View of the Constitution of the United States 46--48 1829 (2d ed.)
21.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 2:§§ 831--36, 838--46, 1833
22.Benjamin F. Butler, Punishment by the House of Representatives No Bar to an Indictment, 25 June 1834
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