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Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

1.Centinel, no. 5, Fall 1787
2.An Old Whig, no. 2, Fall 1787
3.Federal Farmer, no. 4, 12 Oct. 1787
4.Brutus, no. 1, 18 Oct. 1787
5.James Wilson, Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention, 1, 4 Dec. 1787
6.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 33, 203--208, 2 Jan. 1788
7.James Madison, Federalist, no. 44, 303--5, 25 Jan. 1788
8.John Lansing, Proposed Amendment, New York Ratifying Convention, 2 July 1788
9.James Madison, The Bank Bill, House of Representatives, 2 Feb. 1791
10.Thomas Jefferson, Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bill for Establishing a National Bank, 15 Feb. 1791
11.Alexander Hamilton, Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, 23 Feb. 1791
12.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 286--90, 1803
13.Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
14.McCulloch v. Maryland
15.James Madison to Spencer Roane, 2 Sept. 1819
16.Thomas Jefferson to Spencer Roane, 6 Sept. 1819
17.Gibbons v. Ogden
18.American Insurance Co. v. Canter
19.James Madison to Reynolds Chapman, 6 Jan. 1831
20.Andrew Jackson, Veto Message, 10 July 1832
21.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1238--89, 1833
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