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Article 1, Section 9, Clause 3

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

1.Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, bk. 12, CH. 19, 1748
2.William Blackstone, Commentaries 4:373--79, 1769
3.Delaware Declaration of Rights and Fundamental Rules, 11 Sept. 1776
4.Thomas Jefferson, Bill to Attaint Josiah Phillips, 28 May 1778
5.Alexander Hamilton, Letter from Phocion, 1--27 Jan. 1784
6.Alexander Hamilton, A Second Letter from Phocion, April 1784
7.Vermont Constitution of 1786, CH. 2, SEC. 17
8.Records of the Federal Convention
9.Oliver Ellsworth, Landholder, no. 6, 10 Dec. 1787
10.James Iredell, Marcus, Answers to Mr. Mason's Objections to the New Constitution, 1788
11.Calder v. Bull
12.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 292--93, 1803
13.Thomas Jefferson to L. H. Girardin, 12 Mar. 1815
14.William Johnson, Note to Satterlee v. Mathewson
15.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1338--39, 1833
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