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Article 1, Section 9, Clause 4

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census of Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

1.Continental Congress, Taxation and Representation, 12 July 1776
2.James Madison, Bill Authorizing Amendment in Articles of Confederation, 21 June 1784
3.Records of the Federal Convention
4.William Blount, Richard D. Spaight, Hugh Williamson to Governor Caswell, 18 Sept. 1787
5.James McHenry, Maryland House of Delegates, 29 Nov. 1787
6.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 36, 226, 229--30, 8 Jan. 1788
7.Thomas Davies, Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 18 Jan. 1788
8.James Madison, Federalist, nos. 54--58, 366--97, 12--20 Feb. 1788
9.George Mason, Virginia Ratifying Convention, 17 June 1788
10.Richard D. Spaight, North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 30 July 1788
11.Hugh Williamson, Cod Fisheries, House of Representatives, 3 Feb. 1792
12.House of Representatives, Tax on Carriages, 29 May 1794
13.Hylton v. United States
14.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 292--94, 1803
15.Rufus King, Senate, Mar. 1819
16.Loughborough v. Blake
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