§ 25. Bridge between paragraphs.
The following sentences are consecutive paragraph openers from Lawrence Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American History (1993). Identify the bridging words, as well as the bridging method (pointing word, echo link, explicit connective), in each paragraph opener, beginning with the second. Remember that each of these paragraph openers is followed by several other sentences in the paragraph. You're not trying to link the sentences listed; rather, you're trying to spot words in each paragraph opener that relate explicitly to what must have come at the end of the preceding paragraph.
In published legal writing, find an exemplary passage (four pages or so) illustrating good bridges. At the outset of each paragraph, box the bridging word or words. If you're part of a writing group or class, bring a copy for each colleague, provide the full citation on each copy, and be prepared to discuss your findings.
In published legal writing, find a passage (four pages or so) illustrating an absence of bridges. Either add a bridge where needed or else explain in the margin why the problem isn't fixable by an editor. If you're part of a writing group or class, bring a copy for each colleague, provide the full citation on each copy, and be prepared to discuss your findings.
© 2001, Bryan A. Garner
These exercises appear in Bryan A. Garner's Legal Writing in Plain English: A Text with Exercises, published by The University of Chicago Press and available at bookstores and on the Web at www.press.uchicago.edu.