Article 3, Section 2, Clause 1
Owings v. Norwood's Lessee5 Cranch 344 1809
Marshall, C. J. There are only two points in this case.
1. Whether Scarth had such an interest as was protected by the treaty; and,
2. Whether the present case be a case arising under a treaty, within the meaning of the constitution.
This court has no doubt upon either point.
The interest by debt intended to be protected by the treaty, must be an interest holden as a security for money at the time of the treaty; and the debt must still remain due.
The 25th section of the Judiciary Act must be restrained by the constitution, the words of which are, "all cases arising under treaties." The plaintiff in error does not contend that his right grows out of the treaty. Whether it is an obstacle to the plaintiff's recovery, is a question exclusively for the decision of the courts of Maryland.
Harper, on the next day, having suggested to the court that he understood the opinion to be, that this court had no jurisdiction to revise the decisions of the state courts, in cases where the construction of a treaty was drawn in question incidentally, and where the party himself did not claim title under a treaty, was about to make some further observations on those points, when,
Marshall, C. J., observed, that Mr. Harper had misunderstood the opinion of the court, in that respect. It was not that this court had not jurisdiction if the treaty were drawn in question incidentally.
The reason for inserting that clause in the constitution was, that all persons who have real claims under a treaty should have their causes decided by the national tribunals. It was to avoid the apprehension as well as the danger of state prejudices. The words of the constitution are, "cases arising under treaties." Each treaty stipulates something respecting the citizens of the two nations, and gives them rights. Whenever a right grows out of, or is protected by, a treaty, it is sanctioned against all the laws and judicial decisions of the States; and whoever may have this right, it is to be protected. But if the person's title is not affected by the treaty, if he claims nothing under a treaty, his title cannot be protected by the treaty. If Scarth or his heirs had claimed, it would have been a case arising under a treaty. But neither the title of Scarth, nor of any person claiming under him, can be affected by the decision of this cause.
The Founders' Constitution
Volume 4, Article 3, Section 2, Clause 1, Document 53
The University of Chicago Press