Amendment I (Petition and Assembly)

[Volume 5, Page 187]

Document 2

William Lambarde, Eirenarcha 175--76 1614 ed.

An unlawfull Assembly, is the companie of three or moe persons, disorderly comming together, forcibly to commit an unlawful act: as, to beate a man, or to enter upon his possession, or such like. . . .

A Route is a disordered assembly of three or moe persons, moving forwarde to commit by force an unlawfull acte. For it is a Route, whether they put their purpose in ful execution, or no, if so be that they doe goe, ride, or move forward after their first meeting. . . .

A Riot, is thought to bee, where three or moe persons, be disorderly assembled to commit with force any such unlawfull acte, and do accordingly execute the same. . . .

And thus (upon the whole reckoning) an unlawfull assembly is the first degree, or beginning: a Route, the next step, or proceeding: and a Riot the ful effect and consummation, of such a disordered and forbidden action.

The Founders' Constitution
Volume 5, Amendment I (Petition and Assembly), Document 2
The University of Chicago Press