Article 2, Section 2, Clauses 2 and 3

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Foreign Affairs

Appointment and Removal

1.Records of the Federal Convention
2.William Blackstone, Commentaries 1:245--47, 249, 1765
3.James Wilson, Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention, 11 Dec. 1787
4.James Iredell, Marcus, Answers to Mr. Mason's Objections to the New Constitution, 1788
5.Federal Farmer, no. 11, 10 Jan. 1788
6.Debate in South Carolina House of Representatives, 16--17 Jan. 1788
7.James Madison, Federalist, no. 42, 279--80, 22 Jan. 1788
8.John Jay, Federalist, no. 64, 432--38, 5 Mar. 1788
9.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 75, 503--9, 26 Mar. 1788
10.Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention, 18--19 June 1788
11.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 24, 28 July 1788
12.George Washington to Senate Committee on Treaties and Nominations, 10 Aug. 1789
13.United States v. Ravara
14.Alexander Hamilton, Pacificus, no. 1, 29 June 1793
15.James Madison, Letters of Helvidius, nos. 1--4, 24 Aug. 14 Sept. 1793
16.Thomas Jefferson to Edmond Charles Genet, 22 Nov. 1793
17.Senate, Presentation of the Colors of France, 6 Jan. 1796
18.Alexander Hamilton to George Washington, 7 Mar. 1796
19.Alexander Hamilton to William Loughton Smith, 10 Mar. 1796
20.George Washington to House of Representatives, 30 Mar. 1796
21.George Washington to Alexander Hamilton, 31 March 1796
22.James Madison, The Jay Treaty, House of Representatives, 6 Apr. 1796
23.An Act to Declare the Treaties Heretofore Concluded with France, No Longer Obligatory on the United States
24.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 332--36, 338--40, 1803
25.Thomas Jefferson, Proposed Amendment to the Constitution, July 1803
26.Thomas Jefferson to William Dunbar, 17 July 1803
27.Thomas Jefferson to Wilson Cary Nicholas, 7 Sept. 1803
28.Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, 14 July 1804
29.Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, 15 Feb. 1816
30.Rufus King, African Slave Trade, Senate, 12 Jan. 1818
31.James Kent, Commentaries 1:154--68, 1826
32.William Rawle, A View of the Constitution of the United States 195--96 1829 (2d ed.)
33.United States v. Benner
34.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1517, 1559--64, 1833
35.William Blackstone, Commentaries 1:262, 1765
36.Luther Martin, Genuine Information, 1788
37.Federal Farmer, no. 13, 14 Jan. 1788
38.Federal Farmer, no. 14, 17 Jan. 1788
39.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 76, 509--15, 1 Apr. 1788
40.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 77, 515--19, 2 Apr. 1788
41.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 28 July 1788
42.House of Representatives, Treasury Department, 29 June 1789
43.James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, 30 June 1789
44.John Adams, Notes of a Debate in the Senate, 15 July 1789
45.John Adams to Roger Sherman, July 1789
46.Roger Sherman to John Adams, July 1789
47.Samuel Adams to Richard Henry Lee, 29 Aug. 1789
48.Thomas Jefferson, Opinion on Powers of the Senate respecting Diplomatic Appointments, 24 Apr. 1790
49.James Wilson, Government, Lectures on Law, 1791
50.George Mason to James Monroe, 30 Jan. 1792
51.Marbury v. Madison
52.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 342--43, 1803
53.James Madison to Senate of United States, June 1813
54.James Monroe to James Madison, 10 May 1822
55.United States v. Maurice
56.William Rawle, A View of the Constitution of the United States 162--67 1829 (2d ed.)
57.John Macpherson Berrien, Commissions Granted during Recess of Senate, 16 Apr. 1830
58.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1519--26, 1528--33, 1535--40, 1548, 1550--53, 1833