Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

1.Articles of Confederation, art. 2, 1 Mar. 1781
2.James Wilson, Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention, 4 Dec. 1787
3.Federal Farmer, no. 16, 20 Jan. 1788
4.James Madison, Federalist, no. 45, 313--14, 26 Jan. 1788
5.James Iredell, Proposed Amendment, North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 1 Aug. 1788
6.House of Representatives, Amendments to the Constitution, 18, 21 Aug. 1789
7.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 185--87, 1803
8.James Monroe, Views of the President of the United States on the Subject of Internal Improvements, 4 May 1822
9.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1900--1901, 1833