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Article 1, Section 8, Clause 13

To provide and maintain a Navy;

1.Records of the Federal Convention
2.John Jay, Federalist, no. 4, 19--23, 7 Nov. 1787
3.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 11, 65--73, 24 Nov. 1787
4.Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention, 14 June 1788
5.George Washington, Eighth Annual Address, 7 Dec. 1796
6.House of Representatives, Protection of Trade, 22 June 1797
7.Bas v. Tingy
8.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1189--91, 1833

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