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Article 2, Section 2, Clause 1

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

Commander in Chief

Opinions in Writing

Reprieves and Pardons

1.Records of the Federal Convention
2.William Blackstone, Commentaries 1:254, 1765
3.A Georgian, 15 Nov. 1787
4.Luther Martin, Genuine Information, 1788
5.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 74, 500, 25 Mar. 1788
6.Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention, 18 June 1788
7.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 28 July 1788
8.House of Representatives, Protection of Trade, 22 June 1797
9.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 329--31, 1803
10.Little v. Bareme
11.James Monroe to Chairman of Senate Military Committee, Feb. 1815
12.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1485--86, 1833
13.James Iredell, North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 28 July 1788
14.Thomas Jefferson to Walter Jones, 5 Mar. 1810
15.William Wirt, Office of Attorney General, 12 June 1818
16.William Wirt, Duties of the Attorney General, 3 Feb. 1820
17.William Blackstone, Commentaries 4:397--402, 1769
18.Georgia Constitution of 1777, ART. 19
19.Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, PT. 2, CH. 2, SEC. 1, ART. 8
20.Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 74, 500--503, 25 Mar. 1788
21.Gilbert Livingston, Proposed Amendment, New York Ratifying Convention, 4 July 1788
22.James Iredell, North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 28 July 1788
23.James Wilson, Executive Department, Lectures on Law, 1791
24.George Washington, Proclamation of, 1795
25.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 331--32, 1803
26.William Wirt, Pardons, 30 Mar. 1820
27.William Rawle, A View of the Constitution of the United States 174--78 1829 (2d ed.)
28.John Macpherson Berrien, Pardons before Conviction, 12 Oct. 1829
29.United States v. Wilson
30.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1488--98, 1833
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