Article 3, Section 3, Clauses 1 and 2

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

1.Laws of Maryland at Large, 1638
2.Sir Edward Coke, Third Institute 38, 1641
3.Laws of New Haven Colony, 1656
4.General Laws and Liberties of New Plimouth Colony, 1671
5.Connecticut Acts and Laws, 1702
6.Sir Matthew Hale, History of the Pleas of the Crown 1736 (posthumous)
7.Sir Michael Foster, Discourse on High Treason 183--90, 193--98, 200--201, 205--11, 213, 216--19, 221--24, 226--46, 249--51, 1762
8.William Blackstone, Commentaries 4:74--91, 350--51, 1769
9.Continental Congress, "Committee on Spies" (John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Rutledge, and Robert Livingston), 5 June 1776
10.Joseph Hawley to Elbridge Gerry, 17 July 1776
11.An Act Declaring What Shall Be Treason, Laws of Virginia, 1776
12.Respublica v. Carlisle
13.Respublica v. Chapman
14.Respublica v. Weidle
15.Records of the Federal Convention
16.Luther Martin, Genuine Information, 1788
17.James Madison, Federalist, no. 43, 290, 23 Jan. 1788
18.An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes against the United States
19.James Wilson, Of Crimes Immediately against the Community, Lectures on Law, 1791
20.Charles Lee, Treason, 21 Aug. 1798
21.Ex parte Bollman & Swartwout
22.United States v. Burr
23.United States v. Hoxie
24.People v. Lynch
25.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1292, 1294--96, 1791--94, 1796, 1833