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Article 5

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of it's equal Suffrage in the Senate.

1.Vermont Constitution of 1786, CH. 2, ART. 40
2.Records of the Federal Convention
3.Charles Pinckney, Observations on the Plan of Government, 1787
4.Edmund Randolph to Speaker of Virginia House of Delegates, 10 Oct. 1787
5.Federal Farmer, no. 4, 12 Oct. 1787
6.James Madison, Federalist, no. 43, 296, 23 Jan. 1788
7.Debate in Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 30 Jan. 1788
8.James Madison, Federalist, no. 49, 338--43, 2 Feb. 1788
9.Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention, 5--6 June 1788
10.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 29 July 1788
11.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries 1:App. 371--72, 1803
12.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1821--24, 1833
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