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Amendment I (Religion)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

1.John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536
2.The Fundamental Agreement or Original Constitution of the Colony of New-Haven, 4 June 1639
3.The Body of Liberties of the Massachusets Collonie in New England, 1641
4.Roger Williams, The Bloody Tenent, Of Persecution for Cause of Conscience, 1644
5.Maryland Act concerning Religion, 1649
6.Roger Williams to the Town of Providence, Jan. 1655
7.Carolina Fundamental Constitutions, 1669
8.King James II, Instructions to Governor Thomas Dongan, 1682
9.Pennsylvania Charter of Liberty, Laws Agreed Upon in England, etc., 1682
10.John Locke, A Letter concerning Toleration, 1689
11.Delaware Charter of 1701, ARTS. 1, 8
12.Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, bk. 12, CHS. 4, 5; BK. 24, CHS. 7, 8; BK. 25, CHS. 9, 10, 12, 1748
13.Patrick Henry, Religious Tolerance, 1766
14.Benjamin Franklin, Letter to the London Packet, 3 June 1772
15.Samuel Adams, The Rights of the Colonists, 20 Nov. 1772
16.James Madison to William Bradford, 24 Jan. 1774
17.William Bradford to James Madison, 4 Mar. 1774
18.James Madison to William Bradford, 1 Apr. 1774
19.Continental Congress to the People of Great Britain, 21 Oct. 1774
20.Continental Congress to the Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec, 26 Oct. 1774
21.Isaac Backus, A History of New England 1774--75
22.John Adams, Novanglus, no. 4, 13 Feb. 1775
23.Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with the Colonies, 22 Mar. 1775
24.Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 10 Jan. 1776
25.Virginia Declaration of Rights, sec. 16, 12 June 1776
26.Delaware Declaration of Rights and Fundamental Rules, 11 Sept. 1776
27.Maryland Constitution of 1776, Declaration of Rights, nos. 33--36
28.New Jersey Constitution of 1776, ARTS. 18, 19
29.North Carolina Constitution of 1776, ARTS. 19, 31--32, 34
30.Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, Declaration of Rights
31.Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, bk. 5, CH. 1, PT. 3, ART. 3, 1776
32.Thomas Jefferson, Draft of Bill Exempting Dissenters from Contributing to the Support of the Church, 30 Nov. 1776
33.George Mason, Amendment to the Bill Exempting Dissenters from Contributions to the Established Church, 5 Dec. 1776
34.New York Constitution of 1777, ARTS. 38, 39
35.Vermont Constitution of 1777, CH. 1, SEC. 3; CH. 2, SEC. 41
36.South Carolina Constitution of 1778, ARTS. 21, 38
37.Thomas Jefferson, A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, 12 June 1779
38.Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, PT. 1, ARTS. 2, 3
39.Benjamin Rush to John Armstrong, 19 Mar. 1783
40.Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Query 17, 157--61, 1784
41.John Blair to James Madison, 21 June 1784
42.New Hampshire Constitution of 1784, PT. 1, ARTS. 4, 5, 6, 13
43.James Madison, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments, 20 June 1785
44.Virginia, Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, 31 Oct. 1785
45.Thomas Jefferson, Autobiography, 1821
46.Vermont Constitution of 1786, CH. 1, ART. 3
47.An Old Whig, no. 5, Fall 1787
48.A [Maryland] Farmer, no. 7, 11 Apr. 1788
49.James Madison, Virginia Ratifying Convention, 12 June 1788
50.Patrick Henry, Virginia Ratifying Convention, 12 June 1788
51.Virginia Ratifying Convention, Proposed Amendments, 27 June 1788
52.Debate in North Carolina Ratifying Convention, 30 July 1788
53.House of Representatives, Amendments to the Constitution, 15, 17, 20 Aug. 1789
54.George Washington, Proclamation: A National Thanksgiving, 3 Oct. 1789
55.Tench Coxe, Notes concerning the United States of America, 1790
56.Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures, 5 Dec. 1791
57.Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, pt. 1, 1791
58.Thomas Jefferson to Danbury Baptist Association, 1 Jan. 1802
59.St. George Tucker, Blackstone's Commentaries, 1:App. 296--97, 2:App. 3--11, 1803
60.Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Samuel Miller, 23 Jan. 1808
61.House of Representatives, Returned Bill, 21, 23 Feb. 1811
62.People v. Ruggles
63.James Madison, Proclamation, 16 Nov. 1814
64.James Madison, Detached Memoranda, 1817
65.Thomas Jefferson to Albert Gallatin, 16 June 1817
66.James Madison to Edward Livingston, 10 July 1822
67.William Rawle, A View of the Constitution of the United States 121--23 1829 (2d ed.)
68.James Madison to Rev. Adams, 1832
69.Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution 3:§§ 1865--73, 1833
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