Simplify wordy phrases. Watch out for of.
these sentences to minimize prepositions:
- Jenkins knew of the existence of the access port
of the computer.
- This Court did not err in issuing its order of dismissal of the
claims of Plaintiff.
- Courts have identified a number of factors as relevant to a
determination of whether the defendant's use of another's registered trademark
is likely to cause a state of confusion, mistake, or deception.
- One way in which a private party can act preemptively to protect the
enforceability of the rest of the provisions of a contract, in the face of one
void provision, is to insert a severability clause.
- Any waiver of any of the provisions of this Agreement by any party
shall be binding only if set forth in an instrument signed on behalf of that
the following passages to minimize prepositions:
Henry II had genius of a high order, which never manifested itself more clearly
than in his appreciation of the inevitability of the divergence of the paths of
crime and of tort, and in his conception of crimes as offenses against the
The recognition of the propriety of a court's overruling its own decisions
places those decisions on the plane of merely persuasive authority and causes
our theory of judicial precedent to be substantially like the theory held on
the continent of Europe.
- Penfold had no knowledge of the amount of money paid--and could not
have had knowledge of this--in advance of Penfold's review of its financial
position in 2000. Thus, Penfold's profit-sharing is neither deserving of nor
subject to the protections of Title III.
- In the case of R.E. Spriggs Co. v. Adolph Coors Co., 94 Cal.
App. 3d 419 (Cal. Ct. App. 1979), the Court of Appeal of California addressed
the estoppel effect of a cease-and-desist order. The court was of the view that
the trial court erred in failing to apply the doctrine of collateral estoppel,
since the factual issue in dispute had been litigated and decided in an earlier
case involving the enforcement of an FTC cease-and-desist order.
- One or both of the aspects of the function of the court must suffer.
Either consideration of the merits of the actual controversy must yield to the
need of detailed formulation of a precedent that will not embarrass future
decision, or careful formulation must give way to the demand for study of the
merits of the case at hand.
a published passage in which you can improve the style by cutting the ofs
by at least half. Type the original, and then handwrite your edits so that
they're easy to follow. If you're part of a writing group or class, bring a
copy for each of your colleagues.
- Exercise -
© 2001, Bryan A. Garner
These exercises appear in Bryan A. Garner's Legal Writing in Plain English: A Text with
Exercises, published by The University of Chicago Press and available at bookstores and
on the Web at www.press.uchicago.edu.